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Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

Historical Background of Sodium Lauryl Sulphate 

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate : When was SLS first discovered? 

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was first used as an engine degreaser in World War II because the chemical was abrasive and corrosive enough to remove the toughest oils and soot. It was then  brought to the United States after the Second World War and until the mid-1950’s was used for  the same purpose in the product Gunk. To this day, Gunk is still sold in auto parts stores as an  engine degreaser. 

But not only is SLS prevalent in industrial strength cleaners, most of the hair care, household and  hygiene products we use contain this harsh chemical. It all began when large corporations  realized that SLS is an effective foaming agent, producing the same results in different  environments and hardness levels of water. As more of these companies made the chemical, it  became cheaper to manufacture. Now, it costs a few cents to make about 30% of a product such  as soap or shampoo.



Physical state: Liquid (viscous)  

Colour: Colourless 

Odour: This information is not available 

Odour threshold: No data available 

Other physical and chemical parameters  

pH (value): This information is not available.  

Melting point/freezing point: 24 °C at 101.3 kPa 

Initial boiling point and boiling range: 229 °C at 101.3 kPa 

Flash point: 134,8 °C at 101,3 kPa 

Evaporation rate: no data available  

Flammability: (solid, gas) not relevant (fluid) 

Explosive Limits 

• Lower explosion limit (LEL) this information is not available  

• Upper explosion limit (UEL) this information is not available 

Explosion limits of dust clouds not relevant 

Vapour pressure: 0.038 mbar at 38 °C 

Density: 0.9 g /cm³ at 16 °C  

Vapour density: This information is not available. Bulk density: Not applicable  Relative density: Information on this property is not available. 

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

Water solubility: 1 mg/l at 23 °C  

Partition coefficient: n-octanol /water (log KOW) 5,4 (pH value: 7,1, 23 °C) (ECHA)  Auto-ignition temperature: 275 °C 

Decomposition temperature: no data available  

Viscosity: Not determined  


Chemical formula: NaOH 

Molecular weight: 40.01 

Synonyms: White caustic, caustic soda, soda lye, lye 

CAS number: 1310–73–2 

Melting point: 318. 4°C 

Boiling point: 1390°C 

Specific gravity: 2.13 

Solubility: Soluble in water, ethanol and glycerol; insoluble in acetone and ether General characteristics: White deliquescent solid 



Color: Nearly colorless with a hint of blue 

Odor: None 

Taste: Bland 

Density: 1.000 g/ml. The density of water is approximately one gram per cubic centimeter Boiling Point: 100 °C

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

Conductivity: Water is a good conductor of heat 

Compressibility: The compressibility of water reduces the sea level 

Specific Heat:Water has a high specific heat. Specific heat is the amount of energy required to  change the temperature of a substance 

Surface Tension: Water has a high surface tension – it is adhesive and elastic Cohesion: Water is attracted to other water 

Adhesion: Water can also be attracted. 


Chemical Formula: H2O – two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom 

Solvation: Water dissolves more substances than any other liquid 

pH: Pure water has a neutral pH of 7, which is neither acidic nor basic 

Ionization: Water weakly ionizes 


Melting Point: 144° F Alpha form 90.5° F Beta form 62.2° F Gamma form (EPA, 1998) 

Vapor Pressure: 73 mm Hg at 77° F Alpha form 344 mm Hg at 77° F Beta form 433 mm Hg at  77° F Gamma form (EPA, 1998) 

Vapor Density (Relative to Air): 2.76 (EPA, 1998) 

Specific Gravity: 1.92 at 68 ° F Gamma form (liquid) (EPA, 1998) 

Boiling Point: 113 ° F at 760 mm Hg all forms (EPA, 1998) 

Molecular Weight: 80.06 (EPA, 1998)



Description Quantit yUQ CUnit  USDTotal  Value  USDDestinatio n Port
sodium lauryl ether sulphate 1  mole (min.69% active matter) 23460 KGS 1.17 27401.28 jeddah
pharmaceutical raw materials  sodium lauryl sulphate60 KGS 3.09 185.40 kinshasa
sodium lauryl sulphate (min.90%) 14000 KGS 2.91 40796.00 port said
sodium lauryl sulphate(min. 90%) 14000 KGS 2.25 31500.00 montreal
sodium lauryl sulphate powder 160 KGS 3.97 634.81 benapole
sodium lauryl sulphate 90% 15 MTS 2055.0 530825.68 apapa
sodium lauryl sulphate 1200 KGS 2.18 2612.00 jebelali
sodium lauryl sulphate(min. 90%) 15480 KGS 4.22 65341.08 veracruz
sodium lauryl sulphate 24000 KGS 2.30 55104.00 dammam
10 sodium lauryl sulphate (min.90% 22400 KGS 1.57 35257.60stpetersbur g
11 sodium lauryl sulphate (min.90%) 20000 KGS 1.76 35120.48 durban
12sodium lauryl sulphate (min  90%) 15000 KGS 2.60 39000.00 jebelali
13 sodium lauryl sulphate (min.90%) 24000 KGS 2.04 48909.39 gdynia

IMPORT DATA Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

Date Indian  PortDescription Qua ntityUnit  USDOrign  Port
18- Nov 2016nhavashev a seaemersensees 2762 (sodium lauryl ether  sulphate 27%)660 0.21 malaysia
18- Nov 2016nhavashev a seaemersensees 7062 (sodium lauryl ether  sulphate 70%)1015 30.72 malaysia
02- Nov 2016chennai  seasodium lauryl ether sulphate (sles) 70 in  neutral new hdpe drums9570 1.22 malaysia
25-Oct 2016nhavashev a seaemersense as 946n (sodium lauryl sulphate) 1000 1.03 malaysia
25-Oct 2016nhavashev a seaemersense as 956p (sodium lauryl sulphate) 5000 1.03 malaysia
07-Oct 2016chennai  seasodium lauryl sulphate (sls) 70 in neutral new  hdpe drums9900 1.21 malaysia
05-Oct 2016chennai seasodium laurylsulphate (sls) 70 in neutral new  hdpe drums1947 01.21 malaysia
05-Oct 2016bombay  air cargosurfac (sodium lauryl sulphate) sls 300 8.33 united  kingdom
16-Sep 2016bombay  air cargotensopol usp94 (sodium lauryl sulphate) 4000 7.49 belgium
12-Sep 2016nhavashev a seasls 30% ( sodium lauryl sulphate) 58.41 404.0 0malaysia
31- Aug 2016nhavashev a sea sls powder-95 min (sodium lauryl sulphate) 500 1.24 malaysia
19- Aug bombay  air cargo surfac (sodium lauryl sulphate) sls/bp powder 300 8.37united  kingdom


21-Jul 2016bombay  air cargosls powder (sodium lauryl sulphate) (actual  user) 90 18.81 korea
20-Jul 2016nhavashev a seasodium laurylsulphate pl-ne1270-1 sles-1eo  70 pct2005 0 0.94 thailand
17- May 2016nhavashev a sea sodium lauryl sulphate- 500 20.73 china
15-Apr 2016nhavashev a sea sles 28% ( sodium lauryl sulphate)2640 0 0.41 malaysia
11-Apr 2016chennai  sea rhodapex esc-70/mu (sodium lauryl sulphate) 1600 3.03indonesi a
29-Mar 2016bombay  air cargosurface (sodium lauryl sulphate)sls/bp  powder slsbppdr 04.d.p.(qty.15 bags) 300 8.95united  kingdom
19-Mar 2016nhavashev a sea sles – 70 % ( sodium lauryl esthersulphate) 6600 0.94 malaysia

Process Description 

Chemical Reactions: 

1) C12H25OH + SO3 → C12H25SO4H  

 Lauryl Sulfur Sulfated  

 Alcohol trioxide acid  

2) C12H25SO4H + NaOH → C12H25SO4Na + H2

 Sulfated Sodium Sodium Water 

 acid hydroxide lauryl sulphate 

Lauryl Alcohol is sulphated using Gaseous SO3 in a Falling Film Reactor. The acid Formed is  highly unstable and immediately neutralized with NaOH (27.9%). 

Falling Film reactor 11 is charged with reactants through lines 13 and 15 and respective inlets in  the 

reactor wall (not shown), the former line being for addition of Lauryl Alcohol and the latter being  for charging of sulfating agent, which is gaseous sulfur trioxide. The sulfating reaction takes  place in the film reactor and the product of the reaction, which will include separable waste  gases, is removed from the reactor through an outlet therein and through discharge line 17, and is  delivered to separator 19 wherein waste gases are removed and recycled through line 21. From  the separator 19 the acid mix 

produced is taken off through line 23 and is delivered to a collector 25, from which it may be  pumped via line 27 and metering pump 29 through line 31, rotameter 33 and valve 35, and line  41 into wiped film reactor 45. 

Temperature and pressure gauges 47 and 49, respectively, allow monitoring of the conditions of  the feed and aid in calibrating the rotameter. 

Feed pot 55 (which contains neutralizing solution 57), line 59, heat exchanger 61, line 63,  rotameter 65, line 67, pressure control valve 69 and line 71, which enters wiped film neutralizer 45 through an inlet opening therein (not specifically shown), which is at a location above  inlets(not shown) which communicate with lines 39 and 43 for addition of the detergent acid. 

Coolant enters heat exchanger 61 through line 62 and exits via line 64. Pressure gauges 73 and 75  are provided, as well as temperature gauge 77, so that the pressure on the neutralizing agent in the  feed pot can be determined, as can be the pressure and temperature of such agent prior to control valve 69 and prior to entrance of the neutralizing agent solution into the wiped film reactor to  effect neutralization of the detergent acid. Pipes 79 and 81 communicate sight glass 83 with feed  pot 55 so that the height of the neutralizing solution in the pot can be visually monitored. Make up feed of neutralizing solution 57 is stored in make-up tank 85, which communicates through  passage 87, metering pump 89 and line 91 with line 59 and feed pot 57 to recharge the feed pot or  to maintain the height of neutralizing solution 57 relatively constant in such pot. 

Wiped film reactor 45, which is vertically cylindrical in shape, and has an interior free space or  volume 101, includes a plurality of wiping blades 95, preferably three or more, depending on the  size of the reactor. 

Such blades or scrapers are mounted at a suitable angle, such as about 5ᵒ, on rotating shaft 97,  which is coaxial with the cylindrical reactor 45, and which is driven by motor 99 (preferably a  constant speed motor) in such a direction (clockwise when viewed from the top in the  embodiment illustrated) that blades 95 help to move contents (not illustrated) of the neutralizer  45, with the aid of gravity, downwardly through the neutralizer (as well as outwardly onto wall  111) and into holding pot 103. 

A temperature gauge 105 and a pH meter 107 are located at the bottom of reactor 45, with probes  thereof (not numerically identified, but diagrammatically illustrated) in clearance space 109  between blades 95 and inner wall 111 of the reactor to allow determination of the temperature  and pH of the neutralized product at the base of the wiped film reactor, from which it is being fed  to holding pot 103. 

A vacuum is drawn on holding pot 103, and through it also on reactor 45, by a vacuum pump or  other source of vacuum, not illustrated, with which line 113 communicates. The vacuum causes  Water Vapor to be withdrawn from pot 103 through line 115, condenser 117, line 119, 

 Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

condensate receiver 121, line 123, vacuum control valve 125 and line 113 to the vacuum pump.  Condensate 127 may be withdrawn from the condensate receiver 121 through line 129, valve 131  and line 133. A pressure gauge (or vacuum gauge) 135 permits checking the operation of the  vacuum controller. Coolant enters condenser 117 through line 137 and exits through line 139. 

At the bottom of holding pot 103 means for withdrawing high active ingredient content  neutralized detergent salt solution is provided, which includes plunging mechanism 141 in  cylinder 143, which mechanism communicates with hose pump 145. Neutralized product is taken  off from the holding pot through line 163, valve 165 and line 167. 

The natural detergent solution from line 167 is pumped to jacketed wiped film evaporator 201.  The evaporator is heated by passing steam through line 203 into jacket 205 and removing  condensate from the jacket through line 207. Draft air enters the evaporator through line 209 and  exits through line 211 with water vapour that has been removed from the neutralized detergent  base solution. 

Good contact with the reactor wall of the detergent base solution in film form is maintained by  the rapid rotation of wiper blades 213, in essentially the same way such good contact is  maintained with the interior wall of the neutralizing reactor employed. The dried product, in fluid  form, is removed from evaporator 201 through line 215, from which it is delivered to chill roll  217, on which a film is formed due to the action of spreading roll 219. The cooled high solids  content detergent, in solid film or sheet form, is removed from roll 217 by knife 221 and falls, as  a solid sheet or chips, flakes or ribbons, to a collector, not shown, as represented by arrow 223.

 Material Balance 

Chemical Reactions: 

1) C12H25OH + SO3 → C12H25SO4H  

 Lauryl Sulfur Sulfated  

 Alcohol trioxide acid  

2) C12H25SO4H + NaOH → C12H25SO4Na + H2

 Sulfated Sodium Sodium Water 

 acid hydroxide lauryl 


Component Molecular Weight
Lauryl Alcohol 186
Sulfur trioxide 80
Sulfated acid 266
Sodium hydroxide 40
Sodium lauryl sulphate 288
Water 18
Nitrogen 28

Basis: 1 ton/day of product 

The product contains 95.05% Sodium lauryl sulphate, 0.8089% Lauryl alcohol, 0.1011% Sodium  hydroxide and the rest water. 

So,the product contains 950.5 kg SLS, 8.089 kg Alcohol, 1.011 kg NaOH and 40.4 kg Water. Conversion of Sulfated acid to Sodium lauryl sulphate is 100% as we are using excess NaOH. Material Balance on the evaporator 

The evaporator has one inlet stream coming from the holding pot and two outlet streams of final  product and water evaporated. 

The product stream has 950.5 kg SLS, 8.089 kg Alcohol, 1.011 kg NaOH and 40.4 kg Water as  shown above. 

Here SLS,NaOH and Alcohol are the tie components. 

So,the quantities of these in the inlet stream will remain the same ie. 950.5 kg SLS, 8.089 kg  Alcohol, 1.011 kg NaOH. 

The stream coming out from the neutralizer is the stream entering the evaporator.The  concentrations of various components in this stream are 75.8% SLS,0.64% Alcohol,0.08% NaOH  and 23.48% is water. 

Therefore,water in the stream entering the evaporator = 950.5*0.2348/0.758=294.68 kg Therefore,water evaporated=294.68-40.4=254.28 kg 

Material Balance on the neutralizer 

The neutralizer has 2 inlet streams and two outlet streams. 

The stream leaving the neutralizer which is entering the evaporator contains 950.5 kg SLS, 8.088  kg Alcohol, 1.011 kg NaOH and 294.68 kg Water. 

Here Alcohol is the tie component.Therefore mass of Alcohol entering the neutralizer is 8.088 kg.

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

According to reaction 2,1 mole acid gives 1 mole SLS. 

Kmoles of SLS formed=950.5/288=3.3 Kmoles 

Therefore,Kmoles of acid reacted=3.3 Kmoles 

Therefore weight of acid reacted=3.3*266=877.89 kg 

According to reaction 2,1 mole NaOH gives 1 mole SLS. 

Kmoles of NaOH reacted=3.3 Kmoles. 

Therefore weight of NaOH reacted=3.3*40+1.011=133.027 kg. 

The concentration of NaOH fed to the neutralizer is 27.9% 

Therefore,mass of water in NaOH solution=133.027*0.721/0.279=343.772 kg Water formed due to reaction 2=3.3*18=59.4 kg 

Therefore,water evaporated(due to vacuum)=343.772+59.4-294.68=108.49 kg Material Balance on the falling film reactor 

The stream containing acid and alcohol which is entering the neutralizer is the stream which is  leaving the falling film reactor. 

Therefore, weight of components leaving the falling film reactor are 877.89 kg acid and 8.088 kg  alcohol. 

According to reaction 1, 1Mole alcohol gives 1Mole acid. 

Therefore, Kmoles of acid formed = 877.89/266 = 3.3Kmoles. 

Therefore, Kmoles of alcohol reacted = 3.3Kmoles. 

Therefore, weight of alcohol reacted = 3.3*186 = 613.8 kg. 

Therefore, alcohol fed to the reactor = 613.8+8.088 = 621.951 kg. 

Therefore, conversion in the Falling Film Reactor = 613.8*100/621.951 = 98.7%

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate 

Mole SO3/ Mole Lauryl Alcohol = 1.1 (for optimized reaction) 

Therefore, Kmoles of lauryl alcohol fed to the reactor =621.951/186 =  3.3438Kmoles. 

Therefore Kmoles of SO3 fed to the reactor = 3.3438*1.1 = 3.6782 Kmoles=294.256kg According to reaction 1 stoichiometry, Kmoles of SO3 reacted = 3.3 Kmoles. Therefore, Kmoles of SO3 recycled = 3.6782-3.3 = 0.3782 Kmoles=30.256kg Fresh SO3 fed = SO3 consumed in reaction = 3.3 Kmoles=264kg 

Mole SO3 / Mole N2 = 0.05 

Therefore, Kmoles of N2 fed to the reactor = 3.6782*100/5 = 73.564 Kmoles=2,059.792kg Tabulation of results: 


Stream Component Mass(kg)
Inlet SLS 950.5
Alcohol 8.089
NaOH 1.011
Water 294.68
Outlet1 SLS 950.5
Alcohol 8.089
NaOH 1.011
Water 40.4
Outlet2 Water 254.28

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate


Stream Component Mass(kg)
Inlet 1 Sulfated acid 877.89
Alcohol 8.088
Inlet 2 NaOH 133.027
Water 343.772
Outlet 1 SLS 950.5
Alcohol 8.089
NaOH 1.011
Water 294.68
Outlet 2 Water 108.49

Falling Film Reactor

Stream Component Mass(kg)
Inlet 1 Alcohol 621.951
Inlet 2 Sulfur trioxide 294.256
Inlet 3 Nitrogen 2059.792
Outlet Sulfated acid 877.89
Alcohol 8.088

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate


LAURYL ALCOHOL 439.4 -528.5
SULFUR TRIOXIDE 257.9 -395.77
SULFATED ACID 428.9 -1074
WATER 75.97 -286





ΔHr= -321281 KJ 

ΔH1= mCpΔT 


 =-22800.33 KJ 


Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

 =55112 KJ 

(ΔH)reactor = -321281+55112-22800 

 = -288968 KJ 




ΔHr =-345819 KJ 

ΔH1= macid*Cpacid*(25-40)+malc*Cpalc*(25-40)+mNaOH*CpNaoH*(30-40)  +mwater*Cpwater*(30-40) 

 =3.3*428.9*-(15)+0.0434*439.4*(-15)+3.326*28.23*(-10)+19.098*75.97*(-10)  = -36964.28 KJ 

ΔH2= msls*Cpsls*(57-25)+mNaoH*CpNaoH*(57-25)+ malc*Cpalc*(57-25)  +mwater*Cpwater*(57-25) +mwater*Cpwater*(40-25) +msteam*λsteam 

=3.3*379.5*(32) +0.0253*28.23*(32) +0.0434*439.4(32) +16.371*75.97*(32)  +5.2398*75.979*(10) +0.7872*18*2609.8 

ΔH2= 123456.7 KJ 




ΔH= ∑Mi*Cpi*(110-57) +mwaterλwater+mwater*Cp*(10) +mwater*Cp*(100-57)  =3.3*379.5*(53) +0.0253*28.23*(53) +0.0434*439.4*(53) +14.1266*75.97*(43)

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

+14.1266*2.1*(10) +2.244*75.97*(53) ΔH=808395.8046 KJ 

Q= mλ 

∴ m=Q/λ 


=357.7 kg/hr 

∴ Volume of steam= 357.7/1000 =0.3577m³/hr



Residence Time – 5sec 

Kilogram of liquid handled – 0.86382 kg 

Density of alcohol handled – 900 kg/ m³ 

∙ Volume of alcohol handled – 0.0009598 m³ 

∙ Film thickness through which alcohol passes= 1.5mm  

∙ Assuming Di:H=1:4, we get 





∙ Residence Time =5sec 

Kilogram of sulphated acid handled in 5 sec =  x5= 1.2193kg Kilogram of alcohol handled in 5 sec=  x5= 0.01124kg Kilogram of sodium hydroxide handled in 5 sec=  x5=0.18476kg Kilogram of water handled in 5 sec=  x5=0.4775kg ∙ Density of acid= 880kg/ m³ 

∙ Density of alcohol= 900kg/ m³ 

∙ Density of sodium hydroxide= 1920kg/ m³ 

∙ Density of water= 1000kg/m³ 

Volume of liquid=           = 0.0062693 m³    x 2 –    *x 2 = 0.0062693m³ 

∙ Di= 0.329596 m

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

∙ H =2 m 

Holding Pot 

Volume of product coming in will be same as that of neutralizer Volume of liquid= 0.006293 in 10 mins 

∴in 5 sec volume will be= 0.752316 m³ 

Assume vapour space = 50% 

V=   m³ 

∙ Assume D:H = 1:4 

   * 4D= 1.5046 

∙ ∴D=0.78 ; H=3.13m 


∙ Feed inlet= 1254.28kg 

∙ Feed inlet temperature= 330k 

∙ B.P of feed= 861k 

∙ Specific heat= 379.5J/mol k 

∙ Latent heat of water= 2260 KJ/Kg 

∙ Thermic fluid circulation rate= 357.7 kg/hr 

∙ Volume = 357.7/1000= 0.3577 m³/hr 

∙ Th1=373 K 

∙ Tc1= 330K 

∙ mh=0.1kg/hr 

∙ mc=0.3484 kg/hr

LMTD Calculation 

∙ ΔT1=100-57=43 °C 

∙ ΔT2=mod (100-110) = 10°C ΔTlm=   = 22.64°C 

∙ U=2000 W/m² K 

∙ Q=UA ΔTlm 

A=  = 0.38m² ∙ H:D=4:1 



Sodium Lauryl Sulphate



P= 1.408 atm 

This is a case of vessel subjected to internal pressure Design pressure =1.1* 0.142665= 0.157N/m² 

Shell thickness= t =   

To find “f” we need  

Yield Strength= 290 N/mm² and F.O.S= 2.5 

Therefore f=  = 116 N/mm² 


 = 0.1816mm 

Including corrosion allowance of 2mm 

t= 2.1816mm approx 3mm 

Checking for thickness of 3mm for combined loading ∙ Stress in tangential direction 

ft=     =6.0445 N/mm² 

∙ Stress in longitudinal Direction 

1. Stress due to internal pressure 

 fl1 =  =  =2.983 N/mm² 

2. Stress due to total weight of the vessel

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

fl2 =   

Weight= weight of vessel + weight of content =   (Do²-Di²) * H* ρ + 621.951 

=  (0.234²-0.228²) * 0.9 * 8000 +  *5 

= 15.6753+0.8638 

= 16.5391 kg = 162.2488 N 

Actual W= 1.1*162.2488= 178.4737 

fl2 = π = 0.082N/mm² 

3. Stress due to wind load =0 = fl3 

Therefore resultant stress in longitudinal direction flr= fl1+fl2+fl3 

=2.983+0.082=3.065 N/mm² 

∙ Stress due to torsion 

fs=  =   

fs= 0.0060437N/mm² 

∙ Resultant Stress 


 = 5.235 N/mm²

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

This is less than the permissible stress of 116 N/mm². Hence design is safe and thickness used  is satisfactory. Including corrosion allowance of 2 mm.  


We use torispherical head 

th =  +c 

Rc =Di=228mm 

Rk =0.06*228 =13.68mm 

W= 0.25(3+   ) = 0.25(3+   ) = 1.77 

th=   = 2.27mm 


Let the inner diameter of the gasket 

Gi= Do+10= 234+10=244mm 


Go/Gi= 1.00742 

Go= 1.00742* Gi = 245.81mm 

Width of the gasket= (bo-bi)/2 

 =  = 1.405mm 

Basic gasket seating width= bo=N/2= 10/2= 5mm 

AS bo<6.3, b=bo=5mm

bo= bi+2n= 244+20= 264mm 

b= bi+N= 244+10=254mm 


Belt load under atmospheric pressure 

Wm1= *G*By= π*254*5*11= 43888.05N 

Bolt under operating condition 

Wm2= π*g*(2b)*Mp + ( )* G *p 

 = 10460.92N 

Wm1>Wm2, hence controlling load is Wm1. 

Area of bolt required 

Am= Wm1/fbolt =  =318.03mm  

Number of bolts= n=b/2s=  = 10.16=12 (multiple of 4) Diameter of bolt=db=   = 5.81mm 

Bolt circle Diameter = B = bo+2db+12 

 =264+2*5.81+12= 287.62mm Actual bolt Spacing required=bs = πb/m= 75.3mm=80mm  DESIGN OF FLANGE 


Wm= 43888.05 N 

hb= B-G/2= 287.62-254/2=16.81mm 

H= π/4 *G *p= 7955.3N 

K=    = 1.18 

Thickness of flange= tf= G    


Outside Diameter of Flange 

Dfo= B+2Db+12 

 = 287.62+2*5.81+12 


Design of Nozzle 

Internal diameter of the nozzle pipe= 28.5mm Thickness required for nozzle 

Trm=  =   

 = 0.02mm 

Minimum Thickness of nozzle= 0.4mm X=d or X=Di/2+t+tm-3c X=Di+2C =28.5/2+3+4-4.5 28.5+3 =16.75mm =31.5mm

X=31.5 (Choosing higher value) 

h1=2.5(t-c) or h1 =2.5(tm-c) 

 h1= 2.5(3-1.5) h1=2.5(4-1.5) 

h1=3.75mm h1=6.25mm 

h1=3.75 (Choosing the smaller value) 

Area removed= A= dTr= 31.5*3= 94.5 mm  

Area compensated in nozzle wal, outside vessel surface 

Ao= 2h1(tm-trm-c)= 19.75mm 

=Ai=0 since h2=0 

Ar= A-(As+A0+Ai)=31.5mm  

As area Ar is positive compensation in the form of reinforcing pad is required  Ar= 2(Wp*tp) 


Wp= 2.625mm=3mm 

dip=do=d+2tm= 31.5+8= 39.5mm 

dop= dip+ 2wp= 39.5+6= 45.5mm 

Hence a reinforcing pool of inner diameter 39.5mm and outer diameter 45.5mm, with  thickness 6mm can be attached. 


Neutralizer can design as pressure vessel under vacumn

External Pressure= 101.325KN/m  

Di=0.3295m ; H=2m 

T=60°C ; Permissible Stress=116 N/mm ; FOS=2.5;Yield Strength=290N/mm  Poisson Ratio= 0.27 

Assuming Torispherical Head Rci=Do 

hci= Rci-        

Initially Di=Do=329.5mm 

hi= 329.5-           

hi= 77.84=80mm 

Effective length of vessel= 2000mm+2*1/3(80)= 2055mm 

Initially assume thickness = 10mm 


Pc= 12.718 N/mm  

Pa=0.0386/2.5= 5.08N/mm (This is more than the required pressure) ∴Thickness= 10mm 

Now, Elastic instability check 

Pa = KE(     

Now Do/L, 329.5/2055= 0.16 ∴k=0.2084 & m=2.564

Pa= 0.2084*   = 5.16 N/mm  

Pa= 2fc (  )*       

Pa=2*116*(  )*      

Pa=4.1 N/mm  

Pa>P for plastic Deformation 

L/Do= 2000/329.5= 6.07 Do/t=329.5/10=32.9 

From Appendix F= 6237=B 

Pa=     = 13.31kgf/cm= 1.331N/mm  

Pa>P therefore Design is Safe therefore thickness 10mm AGITATOR DESIGN 

Vessel Diameter=329.59mm 

Internal Pressure= 0.02N/mm  

Diameter of agitator= 330-(10*2)=310mm 


N= 2500rpm 

Width 25%of internal diameter= 329.59*0.25= 85mm Thickness:Width= 1:12 therefore thickness=329.59*0.25/12=7mm Liquid in vessel

Specific Gravity: Alcohol=0.83 gm/cm3; NaOH=1.92gm/cm3; water=1gm/cm3; Lauric  acid=gm/cm3;  

Mass fraction: MnaoH=0.0976; Mwater=0.2523; Macid=0.6642 

Therefore average density= 1.095gm/cm3 

Viscosity- μalc=0.018Pa-s; μNaoH-water=0.0033Pa-s; μlauric acid= 0.00688 Pa-s Now  = ∑xi   

  =0.176 therefore V=5cp 


Shear stress in shaft =55N/mm  

Elastic limit in tension= 246N/mm  

E=1.95* N/mm  

Shear Stress for key= 65 N/mm  

Crushing= 130N/mm  

Permissible stress for styling box= 95 N/mm  

Permissible Stress for bolts= 58.7N/mm  

∙ Power 

Nre= *N*ρ/u 

=  * (2500/60) * 1095)/0.005 

 =8.7 *  

Therefore P= Np* ρ* *  

P=1*  *1095* (  

=226771 W 

Therefore Power delivered by motor= 226771/745.7 =304.10 ∙ Shaft Design 

Power= 226771 W 

Torque (Tc) = 226771/(2* *  )= 866Nm 

Maximum Torque= 1.5*866= 1300Nm 

Permissible Shear Stress= 55N/mm  

Fs= (Tmax/Zp) = (1300* )/(55) 

Therefore Zp== 23636  


d=50mm(shaft diameter) 

Now checking for stress in shaft 


 =1300* /0.75*155 


Bending Moment(M) 

M=Fm * overhang 

 =11182* 500=5591397Nmm 

= 5591.3 N.m 

Equivalent Bending Moment

=Me= 0.5(M+ ) 



Now, shaft is cylindrical therefore Appendix A of Joshi 

Z=section modulus=   


= 453.548 N/mm  

Now, shaft is cylindrical therefore Appendix A of Joshi 

Z=section modulus=   


= 453.548 N/mm  

But permissible elastic limit =246 N/mm  

Therefore increase the shaft diameter to 60mm 


= 262.469 N/mm  

Increase the shaft diameter to 65mm therefore f= 206.439 N/mm  Therefore shaft diameter= 65mm 

Critical Speed Consideration 

Fm =W= 11182 N

δ1= W  /3EI 


 =3 mm 

Impeller weight is not equal hub weight = 15kg 

Therefore δ2=      

Shaft weight  

W= (π/4)*   = 0.026kg/mm δs=   

=0.0356 mm 

    = 0.116mm Ncritical=  1 2 s 1 26  = 542 rpm Critical Speed Consideration 

Fm=W=11182 N 

δ1= W  /3EI 


 = 0.1051 mm 

Impeller weight + Hub weight= 12 Kg 


 = 1.384* mm 

Shaft Weight= 0.026kg/mm


 s= 2.6979*  

Ncritical= 2900rpm which is considerably more than 2500rpm Shaft diameter= 100mm 

Overhang= 300mm 


P=0.101325 N/mm  

Design Pressure= 1.1*0.101325= 0.1114575 N/mm  Design Of Evaporator Shell thickness 

t= PDi/(2fJ-P) 



Use shell thickness of 3mm including corrosion allowance Design of Shell Thickness for External Jacket Pressure Critical external Pressure 

Pc=2.42E/    *  Pc= 25.95 N/mm  

Pa= Pc/4= 6.49 N/mm  

Allowable external working pressure as per IS 2825

L/Do= 0.67 

Do/t= 59.93 

Therefore factor B at 373K =6700 

Pa= 6700/14.22*(  )= 0.770 N/mm  

Since both the allowable pressure are greater than the actual design pressure, therefore the shell  thickness of 3mm is satisfactory. 

Design Of Jacket  

Jacket shell thickness for internal pressure 

trj=  +c 


 + 2 



Use 3mm thickness for jacket shell 

Jacket closer thickness should be greater of the following 

tre= 2* trj= 2*3= 6mm 

tre= 0.866*wj*    


Use jacket closer thickness of 6mm

 Site Selection  

Owing to the hazardous nature of the materials handled in a sulphation plant it should be  accommodated in its own building at least 20m from other buildings. It should not be in the  centre of the factory but on the periphery, remote from residential and other areas where gas  emissions could be considered unsafe or a nuisance. The site should have easy access by road for  the receipt of raw materials and should be near the powders/liquids processing plants so that long  transfer lines for sulphated products (acids or pastes) can be avoided.  

Lauryl Alcohol can be stored in closed cylindrical storage tanks provided that they have a water tight roof to keep out the rain. NaOH and SLS paste/pellets tanks can also be located in the open  air provided that the local climate is not extreme.  

The effluent treatment plant can be outside the building. 

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate 



Updated bore module cost = UF.BC (MPF+MF-1) 

UF=Present cost index/ Base Cost Index 

 =602/100= 6.02 

BC= 1000(  


 = 181.91$ 

MPF= Fm*Fp 


Updated Base Module Cost= 6.02*181.91(3.67+4.23-1) 

 =7556$ or Rs528932 


UF= 602/100= 6.02 

BC= Co  *   




MPF= Fm* Fp 



Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

Updated Base Module Cost= 6.02*512.11(3.67+4.23-1)  =21272$ orRs 1489041 


UF= 602/100= 6.02 

BC= Co  *   

 =1000(    *   

 = 111$ 

MPF=Fm*Fp= 3.67*1= 3.67 

Updated Base Module Cost= 6.02*111(3.67+4.23-1)  =4611$ 


Cost of Jacket around evaporator= 150000 Therefore total cost= 2472769 

∙ Holding pot 

∙ V=1.5046 or 397.473 gallons 

Cost= 37   


 = 3941.5$ 

 = Rs 275905 

∙ Pump 

Updated base module cost= UF*BC(MPF+MF-1) 

UF=602/100= 6.02 

 BC =390(     


Updated Bare Module Cost= 6.02*386.17(1.67+1.38-1)  =4765$ 

 = Rs 333600 

Number of pumps used=2 

Therefore total cost= 667200 

Shell and Tube Condenser 



Fo=1 (Floating Head) 

MPF= 2.5(1+0)=2.5 

Updated Bare Module Cost= UF*BC(MPF+MC-1) UF= 6.02 

BC =300(     

Updated Bare Module Cost= 6.02*295.97(2.5+4.23-1)  = 10209$ 

 =Rs 714655

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate



PUMP 667200
10 CONDENSATE 200000
12 MOTOR COST 1041228




PIPING COST 0.35 2330155.1
3 ELECTRICAL COST 0.1 665758.6

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate

SPARES 0.15 998637.9
CONSTRUCTION 0.2 1331517.2
YARD  IMPROVEMENT0.02 133157.72
TRANSPORTATION 0.05 332879.3
10 SERVICE FACILITY 0.1 665758.6

Physics Nobel Prize Winner MIT Prof Frank Wilczek on String Theory, Gravitation, Newton & Big Bang – Rebellion Research


LAND COST (1092  ) = 16000000 

Therefore Total Direct Cost= 25986379 Rs 


OVERHEAD 0.1 2598637.9
SAFETY 0.08 2078910.32
TOTAL 7276186.12


 = 239920151 Rs 

WCI= 0.18*TCI 

 = 0.18* (39920151/0.82) 

 = 8762959.976 

TCI= 48683110.982 Rs 





TAXES (18%) 113617457 TOTAL COST 744825553 


STEAM 173520
SALARY(10% TPC) 86627799.19
PACKAGING (2% TPC) 17325559.84
DISTRIBUTION(2% TPC) 17325559.84
TOTAL COST 866277991.9

Yearly Cost = 866277991.9 Rs 

Yearly Sales= 7920000 Kg s 

Cost/kg = 1130Rs/kg 

Yearly Revenue= 894960000 Rs 

Profit/ Year= 28682009 Rs 

Tax on Profit= 32%

= 9178242 Rs 

Therefore Net Profit= 19503766 Rs 

Breakeven Capacity= 96.7% 

Depreciable FCI= 39920151  

Payback Period= Dep FCI/Net Profit/yr = 39920151/19503766= 2.046 yrs ROI= (Net Profit/yr)/TCI= (19503766/48683110)*100= 40% 


The basic requirement of the sulphonation plant control system is to allow production of the  desired quality acids and pastes in a safe manner within the design capacity limitations of the  plant. The level and sophistication of instruments and process control systems is largely  determined by local preference although in order to satisfy the basic requirement, as stated above,  there is a minimum requirement for instrumentation, control and safety interlocks which are  common to all sulphonation plants .Minimum instrumentation and control requirements  

Air raising  

Compressors The outlet air temperature and pressure from the compressors gives a good  indication of the state of downstream process plant, where additional pressure drop may be  experienced due to the entrainment of dust in the drying bed, breakdown of the catalyst or  malfunction of the control valves. The gas discharge pressure and preferably also the temperature  should be recorded. In addition, for safety reasons and to protect the compressor, a high-pressure  switch/alarm combination should be used to stop the compressor in the event of overpressure.  The sulphur pumping system must be interlocked with compressor operation, to stop the pump  when no process air is available.  

Pressure control system In order for the downstream control valves which control the flow-rate of  SO,/air to function in their optimum range and therefore enable the SO,: organic mole ratio to be  maintained as constant as possible, the air discharge pressure from the compressors must be  controlled. Excess air from the compressors can be vented to atmosphere automatically through a  valve controlled by the pressure measured at some point downstream of the venting point. An  alternative system of controlling the compressor speed can be used where energy costs justify the  additional capital expenditure.  

Air coolers/chilling group The temperature of the glycol solution used to cool the process air  before entering the dryers must be controlled. As an additional safeguard in the event that the  temperature sensor or controller malfunctions, a low-temperature alarm, using a separate  independent sensor, should be fitted on the glycol feed-line to warn if the temperature approaches  O· C. The consequence of too low a glycol feed temperature to the cooling air heat exchanger is the formation of ice on the finned pipes, leading to poor heat transfer, excessive pressure drop  and possibly damage to the heat exchanger or its supports. A measurement of the total air flow rate to the plant should be made on the process air directly after the chilling group. The massflow  of air can be determined at this point by applying the appropriate temperature and pressure  compensations to the volumetric flow-rate.  

Air Driers The control of the regeneration of drying beds can be a manual or automatic  operation.For automatic regeneration after fixed periods of operation, e.g. 8 hours,  electromechanical (relays) or PLC based control may be used. For plants without heat recovery to  produce steam, hot air from sulphur combustion and SO2/S03 cooling can be used for  regeneration of the drying beds. Dewpoint meter A dewpoint meter for process air, with a  recorded signal, should always be fitted as standard in sulphonation plants. Regular manual  checks are essential  

Film Sulphonation  

Mole ratio control The effective control of mole ratio is the most important factor determining the  quality of the sulphonated product. The flow-rate of SO/air is controlled by modulating valves  linked to a flow sensor, normally an orifice plate. Depending on the required SO]-in-air  concentration for the sulphonation of different feedstocks, it is necessary to dilute the SO] from  the gasraising plant with dried process air. The central system for dilution air again employs a  flow sensor and modulating valve. Accurate metering of organic material to the reactor is of  critical importance. As with control of the sulphur flow-rate, proportioning pumps or gear  pump/mass flowmeter combinations can be used. At present, Ballestra has installed automatic  control of the S03/organic mole ratio in at least six new sulphonation plants. The principles of the  mole ratio control are indicated in P&I diagram.This new development is feasible because  accurate and technical reliable massflow meters are available now.  

Reactor cooling system The temperature of the cooling water to the reactor must be controlled. It  is normal to pump cooler water to the upper sections of the reactor, where most of the heat is  produced, which therefore requires separate cooling water temperature control. The temperature  of the cooling water entering and leaving the reactors should be measured and, if necessary, the  flow-rates adjusted such that the T does not exceed 120 C. The flow-rate of cooling water to individual sections of the reactor and the product outlet temperature should also be measured.  The consequence of ineffective cooling is poorer quality products.  

Reactor emergency systems Hard-wired interlocks should be provided to prevent opening of the  SO3 air isolation valve until the reactor emergency system is primed. The system should be  activated by a hard-wired interlock to an organic flow sensor. Level control – acid/gas separator  Control of the level in the acid/gas separator ensures an effective seal between the liquid handling  parts of the sulphation plant and the exhaust gas treatment section. Several methods can be used,  but the one which minimizes the hold-up and residence time distribution of acids  


Metering systems Sodium hydroxide or other neutralising agents, water and other solvents if  required are normally added to the neutralisation loop using metering pumps. Variable-speed gear  pumps controlled by mass-flow meter-based systems can be used.  

pH control Closed loop control of pH is required. Where metering pumps are used for reagent  addition, automatic stroke adjustment should be used to control the addition of a small fraction of  the neutralising agent, the bulk of it being added by a manually adjustable metering pump.  

Pressure control : The operating pressure of the neutralisation loop is normally not controlled.  However, a high pressure switch must be incorporated to stop the paste recirculation pump in the  event of overpressure.  

Temperature control In neutralisation the temperature of the product is not controlled directly, as  the feed of “too cold” water to the shell of the heat exchanger can result in the formation of a skin  of semi-solid product on the inner surfaces of the tubes. The cooling water temperature is  controlled instead, by the addition of cold make-up water to the cooling water recirculation  system. This method of control can only be used if the heat exchanger is oversized for the  maximum envisaged duty with reference to a minimum cooling water temperature in the  recirculation cooling water loop of 25·C. In tropical locations, where the make-up water may be  at a higher temperature than the minimum as defined for “skin” formation on the heat exchange  tubes, the heat exchanger must be sized for the actual characteristics of the cooling water supply. 

Process control strategy  

The level of sophistication of the process control strategy is largely determined by local  preference. Several options are available.  

Manual control In the case of manual control, the operator follows written start-up, shut-down  and product changeover procedures. During normal steady-state operation key variables are  controlled automatically, usually by panel-mounted PID controllers. The operator makes  adjustments to set points of the controllers and also adjusts pump stroke lengths in response to the  results from plant-side analysis or in response to abnormal readings from local or panel mounted  instruments. This type of control strategy is best suited to plants where long periods of steady state operation on single products are envisaged, with few, if any, product changeovers.  

Assisted manual control/data logging Manual control of the operation of a sulphation plant can be  supplemented by computer-based data logging. Such systems are non-interactive in that analogue  and digital signals from the plant are fed to the computer/data logging system, but information is  

not fed back. Consequently, the status of pumps etc. and other data can be displayed on the  screen-based mimics, reports can be printed and the data obtained can be manipulated to show  trends or used in other off-line computer programs.  

Supervisory system Unlike simple data logging systems, supervisory control systems are  designed to restrict the flexibility of the operator by “supervision” of his actions. In these systems  the operator can interact with the plant through the keyboard/workstation to start or stop pumps,  open valves and change PID controller set points. The three-term controllers may be conventional  electronic controllers, linked to the supervising system, or software algorithms programmed into  a PLC. The sophistication of the supervisory control system depends somewhat on the level of  plant automation. In principle, all valves on the plant could be remotely actuated, allowing almost  all procedures including start-up and shut-down to be “run” by the computer. In practice, such  levels of automation are not cost-effective and a compromise is normally reached on the level of  plant automation. The level of automation depends largely on site preference and a high level of  automation is normally only justifiable when several products at different capacities are  manufactured on a single plant. In this case it is important to ensure correct routing of feedstock  to reactor and product to storage. Routing of this type can be incorporated into logic checks 

within the supervisory system. Even in this case, valve automation may not be justified and  manual valves fitted with proximity switches can be used to inform the system that the operator  has actuated the correct valves. If automatic valves are used, however, they can be actuated  automatically from sequences in the system initiated by the selection of a particular “recipe” by  the operator. Such recipes may contain not only routing information but also all the information  required to produce a particular product, starting from a particular feedstock. This information  could be transferred to the plant either by the operator or by the system, dependent upon the level  of automation. The main advantage of sophisticated supervisory control systems is that, by  restricting the activities of the operator, mistakes during production which would affect safety or  product quality can similarly be restricted. However, by restricting the operator’s actions, a  measure of flexibility is lost in the manner in which the plant can be operated. This loss of  flexibility is often important when elements in the plant are not functioning as intended. For  example, if it is not possible to use the dedicated storage tank for a particular product which must  be produced and an equivalent storage tank is available, then re-routing the product to the new  tank not only requires valve position changes but also software changes before the system will  accept the new configuration. Although most systems can be re-configured in a straightforward  manner, such action is normally outside the scope of the operator’s capabilities and intervention  from higher level supervisors or technicians is required. On the basis of the foregoing statements,  the usual control philosophy adopted when designing a supervisory control system is as follows:  a. fully automated continuous running; b. automated emergency shut-down (usually hard-wired).  

a. Automated continuous running All the valves, motors, pumps and analogue loops in the  process stream are controlled via a computer based system. Services and utilities are only  monitored and alarmed. Quality measurements either in-line or off-line are monitored by the  system. As all the necessary information is available to the computer, it can calculate and  perform: material balances/consumption; conversion factors; adjustments to optimise processing;  alarm on drift from pre-set operating conditions. From start-up (sulphur ignition) the plant is fully  computer controlled and operated for a given (pre-set) type of product and production rate. The  change of product type and/or production rate is still performed by the operator and computer assisted in terms of control and relevant process parameters. 

b. Automatic emergency stop The approach is not different from the traditional control system  where fail safe and plant alarm/interlocks can be brought into action at a moment’s notice so as  not to endanger life or plant.


Falling Film Reactor:

ItemProcess ParametersDeviations (Guide WordsPossible CausesPossible ConsequencesAction  Required
1A Flow No1. Control  valve fails (closed position) 2.Controller  fails and closes  valve1. Reaction  does not take place 2. As above1. Select valve  to fail open 2.Place  controller on critical instrumentation  list
1B High1. Control  valve fails (open) 2. Controller  fails and opens  valve1. Runaway Possibility and overheating of reactor 2. As above1. Instruct  operators and update  procedures 2. See1A.2
1C Low1. Valve Incorrect  opening 2. Control  valve fails to  respond1. SO3 in  outlet stream will increase 2. As above1. See 1A.2 2. Place valve  on critical instrumentation  list
1D Reverse1. Failure of  Gas line resulting 1. Film Breaks 1. See 1A.2 2. Replace  check

in backflow 2. Backflow  due to high  backpressure2. As above valve
1E Later than 1. Operator  error1. None1. Production  not as per capacity
1F Temperature Low1. Low Lauryl Alcohol  Supply1. Possibility  of SO3 in  product stream1.Decrease  Gas Flow rate
1G High 1. Low N2  supply1. Low yield  of sulphated acid1. Install high temperature  alarm
1H Pressure Low1. Failure of pressure  Gauge 2. Low  Flowrate of Gas2. Film thickness will increase 2. Same as Above1. Replace  Pressure Gauge 2. Instruct the  operator and line up  the pressure valve  with Lauryl  Alcohol
1I High1. Same as  1H.1 2. High  Flowrate of Gas1. Film Will Break  resulting in increase in SO3 concentration 2. Same as Above1. Same as  1H.1 2. Instruct the  operator and check gas  flow control valve.


∙ Prefeasibility report by Aarti Industries Ltd. 

∙ United States Patent (4544493) by Salvatore J. Silvis, Staten Island, NY ∙ Chemical Technology Encyclopedia, Kirk Othmer 

∙ Sulphonation Technology in the Detergent Industry, W Hernan deGroot 

∙ Lorenz T. Biegler, Ignacio E. Grossmann, Arthur W. Westerberg, Systematic Methods of Chemical Process Design. 

∙ Kiran Hari Ghadyalji, Process Equipment & Design. 

∙ M. V. Joshi, Mechanical Equipment Design 

∙ Analysis of Falling Film Reactors, Siu-Ming Yih, Iowa State University ∙ 


Sodium Lauryl Sulphate by Chaitya Nilesh Shah, Dhwanil Trivedi, Vatsal Shah & Chaitya Shah