How did Einstein explain quantum entanglement?

How did Einstein explain quantum entanglement?


Einstein’s relationship with quantum entanglement was complex and contentious. In the 1930s, Einstein, along with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, published a paper known as the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paradox, which presented a thought experiment designed to show that the theory of quantum mechanics was incomplete.

Article headline regarding the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) paradox paper, in the May 4, 1935 issue of The New York Times.

The EPR paradox involved two entangled particles, each of which was described by a wave function that included both possible states of the particle.

According to quantum mechanics, measuring the state of one particle would collapse the wave function of the other particle, instantaneously determining its state, regardless of the distance between them. This seemed to violate the principle of locality. Which states that physical interactions cannot occur faster than the speed of light.

Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen argued that the entangled particles must have “hidden variables” that determined their states in advance, and that the non-local correlations observed in quantum mechanics were illusory. They believed that there must be a deeper underlying theory that would account for these hidden variables.

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This debate continued for many years, with Einstein famously declaring that “God does not play dice with the universe”!


In addition, Einstien insisted that there must be a deterministic explanation for the apparent randomness of quantum mechanics. However, experiments consistently show that quantum entanglement does indeed exist. And as a result, cannot become explained by any classical theory.

In conclusion, in recent years, new developments in quantum mechanics and quantum information theory have led to a greater understanding of the nature of entanglement. And furthermore opened up new possibilities for the development of quantum technologies. However, the debate over the interpretation of quantum mechanics and the nature of reality continues to this day.

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