China Safety Regulations
China Safety Regulations : As Gallup’s 2019 Global Law and Order Report shows, China ranks No.1 in eastern Asia with the highest law and order index scores. Before this, China ranked among the top 15 in 2018.
Source: Gallup. The 2019 Global Law and Order report presents the results from Gallup’s latest measurements of people’s answers to these questions based on interviews with nearly 152,000 adults in 142 countries and areas in 2018.
Source: Data are collected from national authorities through the annual United Nations Crime Trends Survey (UN-CTS). https://dataunodc.un.org/content/data/homicide/homicide-rate
China Safety Regulations : According to the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), China’s homicide rate was low, at 0.5%, relative to the G7, United States of America (5%), United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1.2%), France (1.2%), Germany (0.9%), Japan (0.3%), Italy (0.6%), Canada (1.8%), up until 2018. Noticeably, China’s homicide rate has been declining since 2000. The reason lies in China’s living environment, production mode, and social relations.
The middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River are important birthplaces of the Chinese nation. They consist mostly of plains and fertile land, and also observe distinct seasons and concentrated precipitation, which are suitable for crop growth. Relying on the unique natural conditions, the Chinese ancestors chose agriculture as the main mode of production, until the demise of the Qing Dynasty. The most important organization carrying the dominated small-scale peasant economy was family. It was difficult for individuals to prevent outsiders from invading their lands and stealing the crops.
Protection required cooperation between families and clans. Therefore, everyone’s interests were closely linked with the group, and a culture emphasizing collective interests gradually formed. An outstanding characteristic of small-scale peasant economy was content with families’ native land and did not move easily. This was determined by its mode of production. Agricultural seeds and technologies are inherited from seasonal changes, tool manufacturing, and other aspects of knowledge accumulation. Once the location is transferred, these ancestral experiences may no longer take effect. Due to the significance of general interests and lack of changes, it was easy to establish a stable and constant order.
During the Xia, Shang, and Western Zhou Dynasties (from the 21st century BC -770 BC), the formation and development of China’s slave society, slave owners and aristocrats, as rulers at that time, mainly used the theocracy thought of “taking orders from heaven” and the patriarchal clan thought guided by “being harmonious and respectful” to rule ideologically.
Corresponding to China’s salve society is slavery in ancient Rome (8th century BC – 476 Western Rome Dies), which is characterized by a high degree of commercialization on the basis of private ownership of land, taking the family as the basic business unit. The reason for this is also the lack of highly centralized and unified state power for slave owners, which leads to the prevalence of private ownership of land everywhere. It should be noted here that the concept of “family” is not the same as China’s “family”. At that time, a slave owner’s family included not only the slave owner himself, his wife and children, but also a large number of slaves belonging to him. In the process of establishing and perfecting Roman law, Roman jurists were the first to give the law the formal meaning of rights, and regard law as a rule to confirm and defend rights.
In the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC－221 BC), The first great social movement began. China was transited from the slave society to feudal society. The movement pushed for the publication of written laws, which prevented the withdrawal of crimes and punishments. Also, it was demanded that the law be spread to the public. China began to pass written laws published and distributed to the entire community.
From Qin and Han Dynasties to the Opium War (221 BC to 1840), China’s feudal society developed slowly to gradually decline. The Qin Dynasty, which unified the whole of China, was established under the guidance of Legalism. Qin advocated extreme totalitarianism. By the Han Dynasty, there had been separate civil legislation that stood outside the criminal law.
China Safety Regulations : Especially in the Song Dynasty, the development of commodity economy promoted the development of civil legal relations, thus promoting the progress of civil laws and the emergence of a large number of separate civil legal provisions. By the Qing Dynasty, civil laws were even more scattered in the “Qing Law”, “Qing Collected Statutes”, “Ministry of Revenue in Feudal Rules” and a series of separate legislation. However, during this period, the use of laws was to safeguard feudal centralization.
In the 10th century, the feudal system prevailed in most parts of Western Europe. Politically, it was manifested as the system of sealing monarchs and ministers, and economically, it was manifested as the system of manor serfdom. The system of sealing monarchs and vassals is a hierarchical system within the feudal master class. It stipulates the rights and obligations of sealing monarchs and vassals at all levels and plays an important role in maintaining and coordinating the relations within the feudal master class.
As a means of oppression and exploitation by feudal lords, serfdom became the economic foundation of feudal society in Western Europe. Different from the law in China’s feudal society, it is extremely scattered. For hundreds of years or even more than 1,000 years in Western Europe, besides Roman law, there are various Germanic laws, church laws, local laws (feudal laws), city laws, commercial laws and king’s passwords, etc., which coexist, combine or compete with each other in an intricate way, thus forming various legal theories.
After the 1911 Revolution overthrew the feudal monarchy, Sun Yat-sen‘s three principles of the people (nationalism, democracy, livelihood) were spread in China. Countless people with lofty ideals made efforts to find a way to change the future and destiny of the Chinese nation. They have gone through repeated explorations from the technical level, social revolution level, industrial level to system level, and cultural level. They have tried various system modes such as constitutional monarchy, parliamentary system, multi-party system, and presidential system, but all ended in failure.
Until the basic principles of Marxism were combined with China’s specific reality, a new state system was established in China to ensure that hundreds of millions of people were masters of the country. The Constitution of 1954, with the two basic contents that the Constitution should stipulate state power and citizens’ rights, established the basic principles of China’s socialist political, economic, and social systems and set up a new legislative and judicial framework.
The Constitution of 1982 restored the nature of the state from the dictatorship of the proletariat to the people’s democratic dictatorship. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China has pushed forward the overall deepening of reform. The socialist system with Chinese characteristics has become increasingly mature.
From the 17th to the 18th century, in Europe and North America, the foundation of feudalism was impacted and the era of the bourgeois revolution came. With the rise and expansion of the market economy, after the bourgeoisie gained power, capitalist countries created laws in accordance with the democratic principles of the bourgeoisie and realized their rule in accordance with the law. Countries have different ways of development, practices, and concepts.
In the United Kingdom and the United States, the rules of law have gradually completed the basic unification of the rule of law by adopting the gradual tradition of the common law. On the European continent, especially France and Germany, the unity of the rule of law through the political unification of the country to promote the unity of the rule of law.
After the Second World War, due to the devastating blow to the fascist system by the people of the world, as well as the upsurge of democracy and national revolution, the legal system has developed to a certain extent in some countries. Countries have successively amended, supplemented, or formulated new constitutions. In terms of legal provisions, citizens’ basic political rights have been expanded, such as the Civil Rights Law passed by the United States in the 1950s and 1960s and the constitutional amendment on expanding voting rights.
Japan in 1946, Italy in 1947 and the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 successively formulated new constitutions, restored and established various principles of democracy, and promulgated a series of legislation to protect citizens’ rights and social welfare. Some countries have also reformulated or revised some important codes.
After the war, most capitalist countries expanded their state intervention in economic life and formulated a large number of social and economic laws and regulations. Capitalist laws mainly have the following common features: efforts to maintain national sovereignty and the rule of law; protection of civil and human rights; separation of powers.
Due to different class attributes and ownership of means of production, capitalist social laws continuously meet capital interests by protecting people’s material and cultural needs; while socialist social laws continuously meet people’s material and cultural needs by protecting capital interests.
China Safety Regulations