Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium After Julius Caeser’s assassination in 44 B.C.E, the Roman Empire fell into civil war until three of the most influential men in Rome, (Octavian, Marc Antony, and Lepidus) formed an alliance known as the Second Triumvirate.
The Second Triumvirate would go on to defeat their opposition and seize control of the Roman Empire. Knowing they still had enemies, they decided the best decision was not to split up the empire, but instead that each of them should take up administration of one part of it.
Octavian, the adopted son and only known heir to Caesar, would govern western Europe while Marc Antony, a renowned general and ally of Caesar, would govern Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of North Africa. Lepidus, the oldest of three, and a former statesman, would rule the rest of Roman North Africa, while the three of them would share rule of Italy.
After receiving governance over the eastern portion of the Roman Empire, Marc Antony’s first order of business was to summon Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, in order to confront her for aiding his enemies in Asia Minor.
Cleopatra was known to have been having an affair with Caesar when he was still alive, and claimed that her son Caesarian was his rightful heir. In an effort to seduce Marc Antony like she had Caesar, Cleopatra arrived dressed as Venus, the Roman goddess of Love. Her seduction was successful, and the two spent a winter together in 41 B.C.E.
At this point in time, Marc Antony and Octavian’s relationship was strained at best, and in an effort to ease tensions, Marc Antony married Octavian’s sister Octavia. Unfortunately, their marriage was not a happy one, and in 37 B.C.E, Marc Antony left Octavia for Cleopatra, who had borne him twins in his absence.
Understandably furious with Marc Antony, Octavian began spreading propaganda that Marc Antony had remarried Cleopatra, something that was illegal in Rome at the time. Antony’s public image would continue to suffer after a disastrous military campaign in Parthia (Part of Modern Day Iran).
After a successful campaign in Armenia in 34 B.C.E, Marc Antony and Cleopatra held a victory ceremony in which they gave their children impressive royal titles, and Caesarion the title of King of Kings.
The claim that Caesarion was the true heir of Caesar directly challenged Octavian’s authority, and the titles that the children had received were seen as an effort to bypass the Second Triumvirate for sole rule of the Roman Empire. Octavian thus declared war on Cleopatra and Marc Antony in 31 B.C.E.
Anticipating an attack by Octavian through Italy, Antony moved his troops from the Middle East to the west side of Greece, in the Gulf of Actium. He was also joined by a squadron under Cleopatra’s command, a squadron which would be key to determining the balance of the battle.
Unfortunately for Antony, Octavian moved his troops to the north side of the gulf, and was able to cut off Antony’s escape to the south. In an attempt to prevent his troops from being surrounded, Antony was forced to put out to sea. Octavian responded in kind, blocking off Antony’s escape out of the west side of the gulf. With nowhere to run, Antony’s fleet was forced to engage.
Marc Antony’s fleet consisted of about 200 ships, of which many were quinqueremes, larger ships made for battle. Octavian’s fleet was larger at about 260 ships, but most were smaller ships. However, Octavian’s smaller ships were much more maneuverable, a critical factor in the battle.
In an effort to break out of Octavian’s blockade, Antony attacked Octavian’s left flank, commanded by renowned Admiral Agrippa. Unfortunately for Marc Antony, Octavian’s quicker ships were able to out-maneuver the attack, forcing Marc Antony to retreat. The fighting continued for hours until Cleopatra suddenly assembled her squadron and fled the batitle through a hole in Octavian’s blockade.
What happened next is hotly debated by historians to this day, as there are conflicting accounts of this story.
What we know is that for whatever reason, after Marc Antony saw that Cleoptra’s fleet was fleeing, he gathered a small group of ships and followed her fleet back to Egypt, abandoning his troops. His troops were left demoralized by his departure, and were quickly defeated by Octavian, who would go on to win the war.
So why did Marc Antony lose the Battle of Actium?
Antony had made a poor choice for campsite.
Choosing to set up camp on the southern edge of the gulf allowed Octavian to quickly blockade Antony, forcing him into a battle he was not prepared for.
Furthermore, Antony’ ship possessed a significant lack of maneuverability. The design was more in line with a barge than a battleship.
Antony’s being outnumbered made the battle difficult to win from the beginning. However, there would have still been a good chance of prevailing if he hadn’t fled the battle with Cleopatra.
While it’s possible that Antony had a good reason to flee, historians have not discovered it yet, and the likely explanation seems to be that he simply lost his nerve, and Octavian took advantage.
Octavian would go on to be crowned Emperor Augustus Caesar, completing Rome’s transition from a republic to an empire.
Battle of Actium Written by Luca Vernhes
Edited by Andrew Fu & Michael Ding